World Trade Organization (WTO) - Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement) (1994)

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Subject Matter:
Patents (Inventions), Utility Models, Industrial Designs, Trademarks, Geographical Indications, Trade Names, Layout Designs of Integrated Circuits, Competition, Undisclosed Information (Trade Secrets), Plant Variety Protection, Copyright and Related Rights (Neighboring Rights), Enforcement of IP and Related Laws, Transfer of Technology, Other, Industrial Property
"This Agreement constitutes Annex 1C of the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization (hereinafter referred to as the "WTO Agreement"), which was concluded on April 15, 1994, and entered into force on January 1, 1995. The TRIPS Agreement binds all Members of the WTO (see Article II.2 of the WTO Agreement)."
The TRIPS Agreement was amended through the Protocol of 6 December 2005 that entered into force on 23 January 2017. The amendment inserted a new Article 31bis into the Agreement as well as an Annex and Appendix. These provide the legal basis for WTO members to grant special compulsory licences exclusively for the production and export of affordable generic medicines to other members that cannot domestically produce the needed medicines in sufficient quantities for their patients.
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